My Brief Interview With Professor Krauss


Professor Lawrence M Krauss graciously agreed to answer a few questions for me on his thoughts about some things Robert Oppenheimer wrote. Here are the first few. I hope to get a couple more out of him but we shall see. I am very grateful he took time out of his busy schedule to indulge me.

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Declassified Photos of Fat Man and Little Boy


These photos and captions were copied and pasted from the web site AcidCow. I have not idea who to credit for posting them. The source link at the bottom of the page goes here;

https://www.businessinsider.com/

 

Recently declassified photos show the US’s final preparations of “Fat Man” and “Little Boy” which were the two bombs that were dropped cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima in 1945.

Soldiers check the casings on the “Fat Man” atomic bomb. Multiple test bombs were created on Tinian Island. All were roughly identical to an operational bomb, even though they lacked the necessary equipment to detonate.
1Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

On the left, geophysicist and Manhattan Project participant Francis Birch marks the bomb unit that would become “Little Boy” while Norman Ramsey, who would later win the Nobel Prize in Physics, looks on.

2Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

A technician applies sealant and putty to the crevices of “Fat Man,” a final preparation to make sure the environment inside the bomb would be stable enough to create a full impact once it detonated.

3Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Soldiers and workers sign their names and other messages on the nose of “Fat Man.”

4Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Here’s a closer look.

5Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

“Fat Man” is loaded onto a transport trailer and given a final once-over.

6Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

The bomb is then escorted to the nearby North Field airbase on Tinian, shrouded in tarp.

7Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

At the airfield, “Fat Man” is lined up over a pit specifically constructed for it, from which it is then loaded into the plane that eventually dropped it over Nagasaki.

8Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Both pits for “Little Boy” and “Fat Man,” each roughly 8 feet by 12 feet, still exist today on the island and now serve as a memorial of sorts.

9Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

The bomb and its trailer are lowered down into the pit using a hydraulic lift.

10Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Workers check “Little Boy” one last time, keeping the tarp on for security reasons, following a similar lowering procedure like the one done for “Fat Man” three days later.

11Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Once “Little Boy” is ready, the Enola Gay, a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, is reversed and positioned over the trench.

12Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

The tarp is removed and the bomb is readied for loading.

13Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Using the hydraulic lift, “Little Boy” is carefully raised and loaded into the belly of the Enola Gay.

14Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

Once inside the plane, the bomb is secured and all connections and equipment are checked again.

15Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)

From there, both “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” were flown over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, and detonated. World War II ended shortly afterwards.

16Declassified Photos Of US Soldiers Preparing For Atomic Bombings Of Japan (16 pics + video)
Left: Atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Right: Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945
Here is a link to some video footage….

President Obama In Hiroshima


https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/05/27/remarks-president-obama-and-prime-minister-abe-japan-hiroshima-peace

Obama has always been a superb orator, this speech epitomized our President’s ability to stir emotions, pump up pride and to look ourselves in the mirror without denying our shame; our remorse or our self-respect.

There are those who heard his words at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial as an apology from the United States. Apologize he did not; what he did do was express remorse as a human being, not as a President. What he did was speak to and for humanity, not to a nation or a peoples. What he did showed was speak as the leader of a country that engaged in war to another country that was engaged in the same war, not as leader of the winning side to the loser on the other side. What he did was speak as a President who would not make the same decision to drop the bomb, not speak for another President who made the decision to do so. What he did was plead for the world to learn from that war, not beg nations to stop fighting them.

I wish Oppie could have been there to hear the leader of the Free world say to the rest of the world what he was saying all along.

Now that mankind has the ability to destroy itself, we need to make sure we never do.

Manhattan; WGM’s New Original Series


the Let me start off by stating that Los Alamos is my hometown, it’s where I grew up, it’s where my family legacy is and I have spent many years diligently researching its history and that of its founder J. Robert Oppenheimer. I moved there when I was six years old in 1967 well after the Manhattan Project and Project Y but I have more than several social media friends who grew up there during this time and have personal knowledge of what it was like to live there  which I do not doubt nor question. That being said let me first say that I am not only disappointed but disgusted and angered with this television series. Now before anyone responds by commenting that this show is not supposed to be factual which it clearly advertises let me say this, then they should not use the name Los Alamos, PO Box 1663, The Manhattan Project or J. Robert Oppenheimer. They did state in their trailer of the show that the characters would be based on a combination of actual people and actual events however. But if this is supposed to be fictional then they should not mention Hitler or Japan or anything to do with actual events of World War II. On a side note why do they bother to use fictional names of all the other scientists working on the bomb if they use Oppenheimer’s. They also use the real names of The Gadget and Thin Man (which was the original name of the Fat Man bomb). If they went to the trouble of researching deep enough to know about Thin Man they could have done better elsewhere. They place the show in Los Alamos New Mexico and refer to the only known name of the town as the factual name of PO Box 1663. This makes no sense but on to more important issues. Because the do refer to the whole thing as The Manhattan Project and because they do have Oppenheimer as the head of it there is enough reference to factual events and persons that those that do not know the history of Los Alamos and the bombs are going to associate these non factual people and events with real ones and most will assume that this show at least loosely represents the truth when in fact the before mentioned names are the only facts and truth of the show.

I am going to specify events from the show and then present what really happened or what never did happen along with things that I don’t believe would have happened based on my knowledge of Los Alamos. I also must point out why I feel so strongly about certain misrepresentations.

1. – This personally the biggest offense of all, admittedly because I have such a fondness and a soft spot for the man us locals lovingly call Oppie. The character of Oppenheimer is presented as aloof and non approachable not to mention anything but hands on which is far from the truth. Oppie though notoriously arrogant and short of patience prior to his assignment as head of the Manhattan Project was a different man when he took his position there. He was known to be not only approachable by his fellow scientists but by their wives and children. He was known to officiate at weddings and host endless parties at Fuller Lodge where he was always surrounded by admiring females and friends who loved him for his charm, his wit and his undeniable charisma. He was known to have an open door policy for his fellow scientists absolutely practiced the philosophy that knowledge should be shared and he encouraged the asking of and answering of questions from everybody within the scientific community. What angers me about his portrayal is that one of Oppies greatest legacies was his ability to assemble a group of the greatest scientific minds from around the world and create a highly collaborative group that had a common goal that was unprecedented and never before or since accomplished.  This leads me to number two…

2. – The scientists in the show are constantly fighting, back stabbing, resentful and just plain nasty towards each other. It was the very fact that the real scientists that were worked on the bombs worked so well together that this project came to be completed so smoothly and so quickly. Now, the fighting and competition in the show is mainly between two groups who are competing with each other to have their design for a plutonium bomb become The Gadget and then be chosen to work on Thin Man’. These two groups are also fighting over the plutonium that they needed to build these bombs.  One of my biggest points of contention to do with the history of building the bomb or dropping the bomb  is the phrase ‘the bomb’.  More often than not it is only Hiroshima that is remembered and more often than not is the belief that it was Fat Man was dropped there when the fact is there were three bombs that were successfully built; The Gadget, Fat Man and Little Boy (Thin Man was abandoned due to contaminated plutonium and redesigned as Little Boy using Uranium).  The Gadget was the first atomic bomb ever used when tested in White Sands New Mexico at what is now known as Trinity Site and Little Boy was the first atomic bomb ever used in war when it was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th 1945. Fat Man was the plutonium bomb and was dropped on the city of Nagasaki on August 9th 1945, 3 days after Little Boy. Now I don’t have any proof or even any documentation to prove this but I also have never read or heard that there was such fierce competition between teams of scientists of the Manhattan project let alone petty bickering and backstabbing.

3. – I highly doubt any Native American would have traded peyote for sanitary napkins, peyote is sacred to them.

4. – In episode 3 they had the wives working the switchboards and monitoring phone calls between residents to listen for ‘flagged’ words of phrases that they were to report to the powers that be if they heard them. I seriously doubt that surveillance jobs of phone conversations for protection of national security would have been entrusted to any civilians.

 

. – In episode 2 the Chinese American spy was shot by a Private at the gates of Los Alamos when trying to leave with classified documents. First I don’t believe that a Private would ever have been posted at the entrance gates. This was a town that even the President who though was aware of the project did not know of its location and nobody in his administration not even the vice president knew it existed. Everyone I mean everyone had to have a badge and security clearance to enter those gates and I highly doubt the responsibility of this would be given to a Private. Secondly I am pretty sure that once this supposed spy was accused of being a spy he never would have been left to leave at the very least without so much as a vehicle search. The character took a guards gun and escaped without so much as a fire alarm going off? Wouldn’t have happened I think it’s a pretty safe bet that the military would have had him down by the time he got to his room, got the documents he was taking, got into his car and then sat there and argued with the MP’s at the gate to let him leave. Now more importantly, it is my opinion that this character on a scientist named Wen Ho Lee, I say this because there is no record of any Chinese scientists ever working on the Manhattan Project or of being accused let alone convicted of being a spy except Lee  who worked at Los Alamos National Laboratories in the 90’s and was accused of espionage. He was however only convicted of one count of misusing classified documents and is still alive today. Those who may know of this man and his actions but not the details could easily confuse fact from fiction.

This show is simply put written by revisionist historians who, though their intent may not be to misinform are doing exactly that about a part of history that should never never never be anything but learned from.

Hiroshima


hiroshima

 

This is an in depth documentary that interviews and features the crew of the Enola Gay as well as the crews of the other 2 planes that flew with her when she dropped the Little Boy on the city of Hiroshima including a candid interview with Kernel Tibbits the pilot of the Enola Gay. This film is a combination of reinactments and actual footage. Unfortunately unless you know what people like J. Robert Oppenheimer, General Leslie Groves or other people featured you have to rely on being able to tell the difference between the two by the film and photography quality. Usually interviews with real people had subtitles with names and what they did. There is a lot of accurate history represented going back to The Gadget test at Trinity to details about Tinian Island as well as events from Pearl Harbor and the war before the bomb. There is definitely a subtle attempt to justify the bombs use on these cities with the inclusion of the number and type of military troops there with emphasis on insisting the city was a military target. Interviews with Japanese soldiers and pilots along with the gut wrenching stories from survivors gives you a rare look at the other side. There is in depth coverage on Stalin and Truman and how the United States handled the medical relief for the victims. I highly recommend this 5 star documentary.

Secrets Of The Dead; The Worlds Biggest Bomb


v23514ayive

Written by Andy Webb and narrated by Liev Schreiber this excellent documentary is about the Atomic Bombs Fat Man and Little Boy. I give it 5 stars.

Radiation Accident Report Regarding Handling Instructions


Accident Report

This is a memorandum from the Safety Superintendent regarding and accident involving a Marine who was exposed to radiation in 19554 due to unclear handling instructions for unloading radioactive cargo.

A Handbook on Operation Castle


A Handbook for Operation Castle

This is a very detailed handbook that was distributed to the scientists at Los Alamos in 1954 and written by the same. It give information on the tests involved in Castle that reveal radiation fallout, the specs of the blasts and how to read these results.

An Announcement of the Atomic Bomb


Atomic Bomb Announcement pg 1

Atomic Bomb Announcement pg 2

Atomic Bomb Announcement pg 3

This a a copy of the 3 page document issued by the war department. I do not know who it was issued to, exactly who issued it or when exactly it was issued. I am sure that I do not have the entire document.

It is a general overview of the information given to Roosevelt and Truman that led to the decision to make the bomb, an overview of why and how the chose the targets and a brief overview of the Manhattan Project which lists Oakridge Tennessee, Hanford Washington and a remote place in northern New Mexico. I found it interesting they do not mention Los Alamos by name. That makes me think it was written with a few years of the end of World War II.

Report on Omega Bridge



Report on Omega Bridge

3317 - Copy - Copy

Photo by Jim McCrary

CAPACITY RATING OF THE LOS ALAMOS CANYON ARCH BRIDGE

This 134 page report was done in 2005, it states the year of construction and a description and the location of the bridge. The bridge was rehabilitated in the 1990’s due to poor condition and necessary upgrades to meet the traffic demands. The load rating results are included.

The bridge is known as the Los Alamos Canyon Bridge but is also called the Omega Bridge. Constructed in 1951 by the Vinson Construction Company it is 106.6 feet high at its center and is 820 feet long from end to end with an arch that spans of 442.5 feet. It was originally designed to be used for H-2o vehicular live loads. The recent work done on the bridge widened the four traffic lanes and improvements on the walkways that included guard rails and light poles.

This is a very detailed report on work done to this one of a kind landmark that dominates the Los Alamos scenery. Worth a read.

Gen Groves Writes To Oppie About Safety


Groves to Oppie Letter about Oppies Safety

General Groves writes a letter to  Oppenheimer’s asking him to have regard for his personal safety, not while working on the worlds first atomic bombs, but in his travels. Groves requests that J. Robert refrain from flying and from driving distances more than a few miles and with a guard of some sort if driving in town. This request was for the duration of the Manhattan Project.

Engineering the Bomb Two Mile Mesa


Engineering the BombTwo Mile Mesa

 

The Detonator and Plutonium Recovery Research at Two-Mile Mesa Site (TA-6).

This 160 page report is for historic context and property documentation and was prepared by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration, Los Alamos Site Office. The purpose of this report is document the construction history, location and eligibility of properties and buildings for the National Register of Historic Places. The initial recommendations are in this report; Sentinels of the Atomic Dawn: A Multiple-Property Evaluation of the Remaining Manhattan Project Properties at Los Alamos (1942 – 1946).

After WWII this sites operations included explosives development, laser and chemistry research and experiments regarding detonation and shock waves in gases.

But its historical significance is its contributions to the war effort. This is the site where the detonator development and plutonium recovery research for “Fat Man” were researched.

This document gives more information than just the technical side of the bomb development that occurred there, it provides lots of history relating to the whole project and all the research done during the Manhattan Project.

Definitely worth a read.

Einstien’s Letter To The President


Einstein Letter To President

It is a common misconception that Albert Einstein was part of the team of scientists that developed the world’s first atomic bombs. This in not true. Einstein never worked on the bomb, he was denied the security clearance in July of 1940 that he needed to be part of the Manhattan Project, those that were given clearance were forbidden to even consult Einstein  because of his left-wing politics. He was deemed a national security risk.

The connection that Einstein had to the development of the bomb was the letter he wrote to President Roosevelt warning him that Nazi Germany scientists were working on an atomic weapon.  Even his E=mc2 only explains the energy an atomic bomb releases; it does not provide any help in building one.

Robert R Brownlee


http://www.rrbrownlee.com/

This is the website of Dr. Robert R Brownlee.

Robert R. Brownlee has degrees from Sterling College, the University of Kansas, and Indiana University. His majors were principally in Astronomy and Astrophysics. With the exception of a year as Assistant Professor of Astronomy at UCLA, he spent his career at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, retiring in l992 to Loveland, Colorado. He was a navigator of B-29’s during WWII, and was on the island of Tinian in the Mariannas at the end of the war. His honors and awards include being a National Foundation Fellow, a University Fellow, a Swain Fellow, and having an Honorary Doctor of Science degree from Sterling College. He was given the Distinguished Associate Award of the Department of Energy in 1993. At Los Alamos, he was an Alternate Division Leader of the Nuclear Test Division, and the Division Leader of the Geosciences Division. He had many duties associated with the Joint Task Forces responsibile for nuclear atmospheric testing in the Pacific, and was the Scientific Deupty Commander of Joint Task Force Eight at the time of its inactivation in 1972. He was also a member of the US Delegation to the United Nations for the Geothermal Energy Program.

 

The Truman Papers


Russell to Truman telegram

Telegram, Richard Russell to Harry S. Truman, August 7, 1945  Senator Russell urging Truman to cease appeals to Japan for peace and to destroy their cities and bring them to their knees after what they did to Pearl Harbor.

Truman to Russell Telegram from Truman to Judge Russell expressing Truman’s regret for having to wipe whole populations because their leaders were uncivilized and pigheaded.

truman notes Handwritten notes by President Truman about making the decision for total destruction of the Japanese and how he justifies it.

Notes regarding meeting

These are notes of a meeting where giving Japan a chance to surrender via threat of the bomb were discussed.

Stimson to Truman

with handwritten reply fromTruman.

Stimson Ayers paper

Press release by Henry Stimson, August 6, 1945 concerning the development of the bomb and it’s projected use.

Stimson_Truman_4-25-45

This correspondence was regarding a secret matter concerning foreign relations.

Truman and the A Bomb

This states that Truman had no knowledge of the bomb before Roosevelt died.

Truman and cravert

This is a plea from Samuel Cavert to give Japan a chance to surrender before the bomb is used, Truman’s reply is included.

Stimson Truman Else

Suggested press release.

Los Alamos Plutonium Workers Tell All


Plutonium Workers Share Experiences

This 50 page article from the Los Alamos Science magazine issue number 23 published in 1995. Several past and present plutonium workers employed at Los Alamos National Laboratories spanning from the time of the Manhattan Project in the early 1940’s to then present times in 1995 were asked to share personal experiences of working with plutonium, each of the participants were involved in accidents resulting in the accumulation of plutonium in their bodies. Los Alamos, during the Manhattan Project, in 1944  is where plutonium was put into the pure metallic form used to build and atomic bomb. It is still one of the few places where plutonium is handled today.

Living At Los Alamos


1 (1)Living at la

This 8 page article is a great resource for information on the acquisition of the land in Northern New Mexico that is now Los Alamos.  It reveals the way the Army manipulated the Boy’s Ranch School out 54,000 acres, including 8900 acres of forest land, that was to be used for a ‘demolition range’. The scientists of the Manhattan Project were given the 27 houses and the 27 buildings and the current residents were evicted with 2 weeks notice. 1500 people literally pushed the students out of their homes and moved right in.  The story of the construction of Laboratory buildings, the cost and the expectations of the new residents are told in the article that is a very good read.

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